[as divided by colon (:)]

  • Username: It is used when user logs in. It should be between 1 and 32 characters in length.
  • Password: An x character indicates that encrypted password is stored in /etc/shadow file. Please note that you need to use the passwd command to compute the hash of a password typed at the CLI or to store/update the hash of the password in /etc/shadow file, in this case, the password hash is stored as an "x".
  • User ID (UID): Each user must be assigned a user ID (UID). UID 0 (zero) is reserved for root and UIDs 1-99 are reserved for other predefined accounts. Further UID 100-999 are reserved by system for administrative and system accounts/groups.
  • Group ID (GID): The primary group ID (stored in /etc/group file)
  • User ID Info: The comment field. It allow you to add extra information about the users such as user’s full name, phone number etc. This field use by finger command.
  • Home directory: The absolute path to the directory the user will be in when they log in. If this directory does not exists then users directory becomes /
  • Command/shell: The absolute path of a command or shell (/bin/bash). Typically, this is a shell. Please note that it does not have to be a shell.


  • # = ID
  • m = Minute
  • h = Hour
  • dom = Day of the month
  • mon = Month
  • dow = Day of the week
  • user = What user the command will run as
  • command = What command should be run

For Example:

#  m   h dom mon dow user  command
17 *   1  *   *   *  root  cd / && run-parts --report /etc/cron.hourly


command: find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null to search the file system for SUID/GUID files. Let’s break down this command:

  • find Initiates the “find” command
  • / Searches the whole file system
  • -perm searches for files with specific permissions
  • -u=s Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file. Symbolic modes are accepted in this form
  • -type f Only search for files
  • 2>/dev/null Suppresses errors